We have 46 chromosomes in total—23 pairs; these will originate from you mum and dad. All of these chromosomes contain all of the information which is genetically transmitted via your DNA. There are two different processes in which DNA transforms into a protein—this is transcription and translation.
Firstly, with transcription, it is the process in which a part of the chromosome is dipped into the nucleus. This is due to the transcription occurring there and due to there being lots of RNA nucleotides. The gene will then unwind from the double helix (DNA), and the hydrogen bonds will therefore be broken. This will allow the free RNA bases to line up along the single strand of the DNA—they will then make up copies (pairs), called template strands. It is a three based sequence of the nucleotides in the mRNA; this is known as the triplet codon. A codon is where it consists of three nucleotides which arranges a unit of genetic code in either DNA or RNA. These codons are used to make the protein of polypeptide. This requires mRNA, tRNA, enzymes and also, ribosome amino acids.
Then for translation, it is located within the cytoplasm and the mRNA will locate a specific ribosome to align with it. This will allow a tRNA molecule to ‘float in’, the anticodon must correspond to one of the other mRNA molecules; this will allow the amino acid to be brought into the process of translation. Whilst this particular molecule is attached to the amino acid, another of the tRNA will emerge with another amino acid—this will match the anticodon with the second codon triplet of the mRNA. From this occurring, an enzyme will then catalyse a compression between the two amino acids—this will create a peptide bond. The first of the tRNA must then be broken away; then it will go back into the cytoplasm to then reload it with an amino acid. The ribosome will then move to the second tRNA to allow there to be room for another one to bring a different amino acid. This process will keep repeating until it has the codon triplets to create a chain. With the last codon triplet , it will create a stop; this is due to the polypeptide breaking away to move freely in the cytoplasm.