Shoulder pain is a very common musculoskeletal disorder. After low back pain and neck pain it is considered as 3rd most prevalent musculoskeletal problem. Shoulder pain may lead to inability in carrying out daily life, work and leisure activities and is considered to have multifactorial causes. The exact mechanisms underlying shoulder pain is understood poorly. The aetiology of shoulder pain is diverse and includes pathology originating from the neck, glenohumeral, acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular joints, rotator cuff and other soft tissues around the shoulder girdle. The most common source of shoulder pain is the rotator cuff, accounting for over two-thirds of cases.The lifetime prevalence of shoulder pain is as high as 67%. The prevalence and incidence of shoulder pain varies largely across age and population. The incidence of shoulder pain has been reported between 0.9%-2.5% and prevalence reported by various studies vary from 6.9-26% for point prevalence to 6.7-66.7% for lifetime prevalence. The literature is deficient regarding prevalence of shoulder pain in Indian population.Various risk factors of shoulder pain like age, diabetes and alcoholism have been considered in the literature. Gender has also been considered an important risk factor for shoulder and upper extremity pain. Shoulder pain is more common among adults. Few authors have shown that the shoulder pain prevalence is highest in middle aged individuals. Shoulder pain has been found to be more prevalent among females. However, some prevalence studies did not find any difference in prevalence of shoulder pain among men and women. The shoulder has evolved to withstand heavy physical demands and to do so over an unusually wide range of motion. To achieve this, it is not a simple ‘ball and socket’ joint but rather a complex composed of four articulations and a supporting arrangement of bones, muscles and ligaments within and outside of the joint capsule. However, its complexity and the nature of the demands on it make it susceptible to a range of articular and peri-articular pathologies. Shoulder pain has a diverse range of causes? Articular pathology– Osteoarthritis of gleno-humeral joint, Osteoarthritis of acromioclavicular joint, Milwaukee shoulder? Soft tissue local pathology–Rotator cuff tendinopathy/impingement syndrome, Biceps tendinopathy, Adhesive capsulitis, Calcific tendinitis, Subacromial bursitis, Shoulder instability, Labral tears? Pain syndromes–Fibromyalgia syndrome, Shoulder-hand syndromeThere are few studies which reported that among the shoulder patients 36% had subacromial pain syndrome, myalgia was present in 17% followed by adhesive capsulitis in 11% of patients. According to a study maximum prevalence of rotator cuff impingement is 31.03%, also in 15.73% patients no specific diagnosis could be made. According to previous study rotator cuff tendinitis was the most common diagnosis followed by adhesive capsulitis. Acromioclavicular joint pathology was the next most common diagnosis. In a population based study it was found that maximum patients with adhesive capsulitis followed by subacromial pain syndrome. Thus diagnostic distribution of shoulder cases varies between the few reported researches. The factors that start an episode of shoulder pain are not necessarily the same as those that contribute to persistent and chronic pain.In 1968, McCaffery defined pain as “whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever s/he says it does”. This definition emphasizes that pain is a subjective experience with no objective measures. In 1979, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) introduced the most widely used definition of pain. The IASP defined pain as an “unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.”19 This definition emphasizes that pain is a complex experience that includes multiple dimensions.Although pain classes are not diagnoses, categorizing pain helps guide treatment. Multiple systems for classifying pain exist. Of the latter systems, those based on pain duration ? Acute pain? Chronic pain and underlying pathophysiology? Nociceptive pain? Neuropathic painShoulder pain is defined as chronic when it has been present for longer than six months. Common conditions that can result in chronic shoulder pain include rotator cuff disorders, adhesive capsulitis, shoulder instability, and shoulder arthritis. Several studies have shown that shoulder pain of long duration, at high intensity, and with a high level of disability predict persistent complaints.Pain Neuroscience EducationPAIN NEUROSCIENCE EDUCATION can be best described as an educational session or sessions describing the neurobiology and neurophysiology of pain and pain processing by the nervous system. Instead of a traditional model of connecting tissue injury or nociception and pain, PAIN NEUROSCIENCE EDUCATION aims to describe how the nervous system, through peripheral nerve sensitization, central sensitization, synaptic activity, and brain processing, interprets information from the tissues and that neural activation, as either upregulation or downregulation, has the ability to modulate the pain experience. Patients are thus educated that the nervous system’s processing of their injury, in conjunction with various psychosocial aspects, determines their pain experience and that pain is not always a true representation of the status of the tissues. By reconceptualizing their pain as the nervous system’s interpretation of the threat of the injury, rather than an accurate measure of the degree of injury in their tissues, patients may be more inclined to move, exercise, and push into some discomfort. Depending on the timing of its administration, PAIN NEUROSCIENCE EDUCATION may be viewed as a preventive measure in acute pain situations and as a treatment/rehabilitation intervention in chronic pain situations.PNE is an educational intervention aiming to change a patient’s understanding of the biological processes associated with pain.In recent years, born out of this dichotomy, clinicians and scientists explored the notion of teaching people more about pain. This type of education is referred to as pain neuroscience education. PAIN NEUROSCIENCE EDUCATION is an educational strategy used by physical therapists that focuses on teaching people in pain more about the biological and physiological processes involved in their pain experience.