Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a PC component, which moves
out the commands of a computer program. The CPU carries out the command of the
program, in turn, to do the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output
operations of the system. CPU is considered as a brain of a computer. The key
purpose is to procedure data, where all the calculating, organizing, searching
and decision making happens on the PC. CPU can read data from memory and write
data to the memory. Most of the devices nowadays use CPU, such as a laptop,
tablet, desktop, smartphone and flat-screen television. The speed of the CPU is
measured in MHz (megahertz) and lately GHz (gigahertz). There are 2 types of
CPUs AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) and Intel Celeron.
In the CPU, the main components are ALU (Arithmetic Logic
Unit) that does the mathematical, logical and decision actions and the CU
(Control Unit) that guides all of the processor procedure. When the CPU runs a
program on the computer, it needs somewhere to store the data that the
instructions operate on. The storage is called register. CPUs have 2 buses,
such as a data bus and an address bus.
The recent CPUs are small (in size) and square and have many
metallic connectors underneath. Most of the CPU have pins at the bottom,
however not all, the CPUs that have pins underneath are flexible. The CPU is
inserted straight into the CPU socket, on the motherboard. On the other hand,
the motherboard will only support certain types of CPU, therefore, you will have
to check the motherboard specification before trying to change or upgrade a
CPU. Recent CPU’s have an attached heat sink and a small fan that goes right on
top of the CPU to help scatter heat. One disadvantage is that Intel’s powerful
multicore processors make a huge amount of heat, demanding many fans for
cooling. Another disadvantage is that Intel processors are the price.
The history of CPU is frequently referred to the different
generation of computing devices. All the generation, there will be a fast or
best CPU to meet the human needs. Advancement of CPU will change the way of how
the computer will operate, increases result in a display, PC becoming more
powerful and efficient.
The first CPU was developed at Intel, by Ted Hoff and others
and released on 15th November 1971. The processor that was released by Intel
was the 4004 processor. The Intel 4004 processor had 4-bit register and the
clock speed of 740 kHz. It was created to work in a combination with the other
microchips, 4001 ROM, 4002 RAM and 4003 Shift Registers. However, the 4004 only
performed calculations, where the other components were making the processor
function. The 4004 was generally used inside of a calculator and similar
Throughout the history of computer processors, the speed
(clock speed) and the abilities of the processor have vividly developed. For
example, the first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, which released in
November 1971. It had 2,300 transistors and completed around 60,000 tasks per
second. The Intel Pentium processor, which has 3,3000,000 transistors and
completed 188,000,000 instructions per second. Nowadays most of the desktops or
laptops use either 32-bit or 64-bit CPUs. However, many of the old CPUs from
the 70s, 80s, and 90s had only 8-bit or 16-bit.
The Intel 8008, the first 8-bit CPU, released in April 1972.
The 8008 was available in 2 different clock speed 500 kHz and 800 kHz, and it
became the standards for computers. It used in microcomputers, calculators,
dumb terminals and bottling machines. Overall the performance of the i8008 was
greater due to quicker effective speed, 8-bit architecture, and efficient
The Intel 8086, the first 16-bit CPU, released in June 1978.
The 8086 was a microprocessor, which had a codename P1. It used a 16-bit
architecture, had 29,00 transistors and ran at a clock speed of 5 MHz and can
access one megabyte of memory. The Intel 80386, the first 32-bit CPU, released
in February 1982. The 80386 had 275,00 transistors and was able to do more than
five million instructions per second.
The Intel Pentium, the first 64-bit CPU, which released in
March 1993. The name Pentium comes from the Greek word for “Five” and is used
as it’s the fifth processor. The clock speed of it was 60 MHz and 300 MHz, it
also had 64-bit data bus. Additional improvements to Pentium core such as: To
improve data transfer rates and to reduce the CPU power consumption. Later versions of the Pentium processors had
57 new instructions, which was used to speed up the process of multimedia. It
was also created in 3 different versions desktop, mobile, and processors.
The latest CPU is the Intel i7 core. Intel Core i7 was first
released in November 2008, since then, they have over 60 different versions
released for laptops and desktops. Whatever the needs of the user are, a Core
i7 processor meets those needs. Most of the users will choose Core i7 over Core
i5, as it will offer best graphics, high speed, power, and performance. Most
people, including gamers, will find that a Core i5 is perfectly adequate. On
the other hand, Core i7 is mainly for users who often run extremely demanding
Hence, the future CPUs will be essential to be not only
super-fast but also super-efficient and super-smart. In my opinion, I think,
before purchasing any CPU you should ensure what you will be doing mostly on
the desktop or laptop and then buy the CPU that meets your needs because they
The central processing unit is a vital component in the PC,
as it processes instructions of a computer program by doing simple
arithmetical, logical and input/output actions of the system. That is why the
CPU is also known as the brain of the computer. The CPU period has been used
and the design/implementation of the CPU has enhanced remarkably over the
years, therefore, it’s becoming more efficient and powerful. CPU has been used
in several types of computers, from personal to supercomputers.