70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by oceans which play an
essential role in the process of atmospheric circulation, that is why meteorology is to observe the
weather over the oceans, which allows navigational deck officers to execute
voyage planning properly and avoid perils and risks at sea by forecasting the
weather with different means of computerized technologies and devices.Nowadays, there are plenty of weather forecasting services provide
reliable data enabling efficient day-to-day accomplishment of on board
operations such as weather-routing, loading and discharging of cargo, and other
seagoing routine operations. Therefore, it is extremely important to have an
access to the forecast information and ability to put into practice the knowledge
in order to maintain the safety of life at sea and avoid unforeseen calamities.A competent deck officer should possess good seamanship which combines
all the knowledge and skills to bring the vessel, crew and consignment on board
safely to the point of destination. Therefore, knowledge in meteorology in
maritime transportation is crucial. The goal of this project is to make an
extensive research on the innovations in meteorology and the proper use of
these inventions on board according to the competence of the deck officer. 1.2 Research questions and objectivesThis section is to identify which
questions will cover the research along with its objectives. The questions are: • To what extent meteorology in maritime industry is
important?• Is the crew on board qualified and certified for the
knowledge of meteorology and oceanography?• Can the crew on board use knowledge gained and put
it into practice?• Are the innovations relevant and what functions they
implement?• Is the quality of the technology involved in
meteorology reliable?The objectives are: • To collect useful
information from maritime sites, publications and internet resources • To make a literature review and summarize
collected data • To make a list of technical terms found
in reading sources • To analyze the statistics and the
information found to make clear approach of the research of the meteorology in
maritime industry 1.3
a literature review on innovations of meteorology from credible sources such as
books, journals, and internet pages for complete understanding of topic.2.
an analysis of problems that can face the user while running the technology and
find possible solution.3.
make conclusion.2. Glossary
The branch of scientific study of atmosphere and its
Meteorology based on the periodic observations of
The scientific study based on the description of the
Oceanography studies variables of the sea such as
wind speed, current.
Detection And Ranging)
device used to determine at a single station the direction and distance of an
object. By measuring time taken till the emitted signal will reach the
distant object and return. 10
can find information about sea state on the screen of RADAR
and Hydrological Services(NMHSs)
Service which provide weather and climate prediction
models from which local and global forecasts are generated4
Meteorological and Hydrological Services is to
promote long-term observation.
Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology(JCOMM)
Worldwide marine meteorological and oceanographic
communities which are working to respond to interdisciplinary requirements for
met/ocean observations, data management and service products.6
JCOMM provides systems for the coordination of
Buoys collecting meteorological data placed over the
oceans to send information for weather forecasting services1
Drifting buoys are used to collect meteorological
A system of 24
Earth-orbiting satellites which provides location-specific information as
precise as tens of meters4
GPS is a compulsory
equipment to be carried on board.
System which is
capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes
which are spatially referenced to the Earth.4
GIS in combination
with GPS provides technological device for NMHSs to improve weather public
IMO(International Maritime Organization)
The United Nations specialized agency with
responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of
marine pollution by ships.9
IMO was established in Genova in 1948.
of the collected data from various data collecting installations and predicting
weather by analysis based on observations10
Forecast of sandstorm near the west coast of Africa
International Convention adopted by IMO on Standards of Training,
Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers9
STCW requirements were adopted in 1978.
International Convention on Safety Of Life At Sea9
SOLAS sets minimum requirements to maintain safety
of life at sea
ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total volume of the air, expressed in
The absolute humidity as a whole decreases as the temperature falls.
(Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 5)
ratio of the existing amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature
to the maximum amount that could exist at that temperature, expressed in
humidity is expressed in percentage
instrument used to measure the water vapor content of the air.7
consists of two thermometers.
1) Stander J.
Importance of Marine Meteorological Observations in support of services, no
date. Online Retrieved from: https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-125_TECO_2016/Session_4/K4A_Stander_JCOMM.pdf Accessed January 25 2018 2)
Offshore weather forecasting services, no
date. Online Retrieved from: https://www.fugro.com/our-services/marine-asset-integrity/monitoring-and-forecasting/offshore-weather-forecasting-services Accessed January 25 20183)
June 1) IMO Publication Carriage Requirements On Board
Vessels. Online Retrieved from: https://www.admiralty.co.uk/AdmiraltyDownloadMedia/Flag%20State%20Table%20Docs/IMO-MSC-MEPC-2-Circ2-on-carriage-of-publications.pdf Accessed January 25 20184)
John L. Guiney, (2008) Innovations and New
Technology for Improved Weather Services, 57(4) Online Retrieved from: https://public.wmo.int/en/bulletin/innovations-and-new-technology-improved-weather-servicesAccessed January 25 20185)
IMarEST:The Institute of Marine Engineering,
Science and Technology,
or Marine Meteorology.
no date. Online Retrieved
from: https://www.imarest.org/membership/education-careers/careers-in-the-marine-profession/how-about-oceanography-or-marine-meterology 6)
The Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for
Oceanography and Marine Meteorology. no date. Online Available from: http://www.jcomm.info/Accessed January 25 20187) Glossary of Meteorological Terms, no date. Online Retrieved from: https://novalynx.com/store/pc/Glossary-of-Meteorological-Terms-A-d9.htm Accessed January 25 20188) KNMI (Royal Netherlands
Software TurboWin, (2017) Online Retrieved from:http://projects.knmi.nl/turbowin/ Accessed
January 25 2018 9) International Maritime Organization. Introduction to IMO, no date. Online
Retrieved from: http://www.imo.org/en/About/Pages/Default.aspx Accessed January 25 2017.10) International Meteorological
Vocabulary, WMO – No. 182 (1986) Online Retrieved
from: http://wmo.multitranstms.com/MultiTransWeb/Web.mvc Accessed January 25 2017. 3. Note
Marine forecasts and
warnings Met Office
forecasts and storm warnings are to be reliable and received timely.
no date Online Retrieved from:
https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/ marine Accessed January 25 2018
Carriage Requirements IMO
On Board Vessels
Compulsory carriage of Nautical Charts and
publications on board such as Admiralty Sailing Directions, Ocean Passages
for the World which describes weather of certain area.
(2015) Online Retrieved from: https://www.amnautical.com/blogs/news/17586460-imo-publication-carriage-requirements-on-board-vessels#.Wmwgyd9l-Uk Accessed January 25 2018
Innovations and New
Improved Weather Services John L.
Improved ways to transmit data-based weather
forecast all over the ocean by digital, graphical formats.
(2008) Online Retrieved from: https://public.wmo.int/en/bulletin/innovations-and-new-technology-improved-weather-servicesAccessed January 25 2018
Sofware Turbowin 5.5 KNMI (Royal Netherlands
On board meteorological
observations by competent crew is a vital source of information to plan
voyage and prepare for future events. Crew can easily enter observed data to
January 25 2018
Importance of Marine Meteorological Observations Stander J.
Provision of forecasts and warnings to seagoing and
offshore operations to avoid severe weather conditions which can negatively
affect the process of trade and offshore service.
no date. Online Retrieved from: https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-125_TECO_2016/Session_4/K4A_Stander_JCOMM.pdf Accessed January 25 2018
How to be prepared to bad weather conditions Wankhede A.
The knowledge of competent deck officer is a vital
thing to minimize the dangers during rough sea by taking basic precautions to
Marine Insight. (2016) What to do When Ship Encounters Rough
Weather? Online Retrieved from: https://www.marineinsight.com/marine-safety/what-to-do-when-ship-encounters-rough-weather/ Accessed
January 25 2018