gives some theories addressing term about Sociolinguistic (gender, social
status, age and self-image) and Pragmatic as the part of the politeness. The
previous research will be mention it too, to give the description on the
development of the concept addressing term and politeness.
connected with how language is used by different groups in society and have relation to social factors,
including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, gender
differences, and bilingualism. For achieve more better and understanding about
sociolinguistic about nature of human language, nature of relationship, or
interaction by studying language and society. Basically sociolinguistic is the
study of language and society. Holmes (1996, ”p.16”) ‘the
sociolinguist’s aim is to move towards a theory which provides a motivated
account of the way language is used in a community, and of the choices people
make when they use language.’ For example, when we observe how varied language
use is we must search for the causes. sociolinguistics actually is not about structure
of a language, but it focuses on how a language is used, so it (language) could
play its function well.
Chaer and Agustina (2004:2-5) mentioned that sociolinguistic is a disciplinary study between sociology and
linguistic which have relation. Sociology is objective and scientific discourse
about human in community, and institutions, and social process. Sociology tries
to know how the community happens, exists, and keep goes on. The human could be
understood how they adapt the environment. For about sociolinguistics, it means
a study to learning language, so language as an object of matter.
So, that’s why when people go outside they
need a language, or they will find some trouble to do their activities, and
sociolinguistic analyze how to use the language for relationship in social and
cultural aspects. That’s why we need to understand the role of language in
Pragmatic is one of the branches
from the study of linguistic relating to the study presented by the speaker.
Pragmatic more related to the study with the analysis what is the meant by the
speech, compare to what is intended by the word or phrase linguistically.
Pragmatic is the study of speaker meaning as distinct from word or sentence
meaning (Yule, 1996:4). So, pragmatic is
the study presented by the speaker regardless of the meaning of word or
According to Cappelen and Lepore (2005:136) pragmatic is the study of
how meaning is affected by context. Based on that statement pragmatic is the
study need interpretation in context and how the context can be affected the
meaning. This is needed for the intended meaning by the speaker to reach that
person. So, the study of pragmatic closely related to the context. In pragmatic
have contextual meaning.
Levinson (1983:21) say pragmatic is the study of the relation between
language and context that are basic to an account of language understanding. Based on that statement to understand
someone language, the speaker not only know the meaning of the word in related
with the context as the basic to understand a language.
From the three opinion, pragmatic is the study which can see from the
speaker. Basically the meaning word behind the speaker, so not just understand
the speaker language.
2.4 Adress Term
Address term can know as term of address or
form of address usually addressing term have named, title or phrase and in
addressing term calling someone’s is the common way of addressing someone.
Wardaugh (2000:264) implies that the person must consider the classification addressing
terms, such as; addressing using name, addressing of closing relationship,
intimate term, addressing of kinship term, addressing of respectful term, even
addressing of mockeries. Also, a term of address may be friendly,
unfriendly, neutral, respectful, disrespectful, or comradely.
According Braun (1988:7) address
term is word or phrases used for addressing.
Based on the statement, now address
term is the word to communicate our feeling / message to that person. For example, “How are you, friends!” So, from the word
friend can use by the speaker to greet that person.
Having deep understanding about
addressing term is not an easy matter. Wardaugh (1993:253)
confirms that the actual rules of address in a society are as complex as society
itself. So someone can address same or different person with different ways. It
is due to social context.
are some kinds of addressing term, here:
In term of using name, the speaker
only call the name to addressing someone
Janet, Shirou, Kimberly, etc.
In term of using kinship, the
speaker not call the last name and directly using kinship term
for mother (Mom, Mam, Mummy),
Father (Dad, Daddy, Papa), Grandmother (gran, grandma, nana, nan)
for grandfather we use (grandad,
grandpa, granpy, gramps, pops), etc.
c. Using intimacy / endearment
this term of intimacy / skinship, the speaker use the polite term to substitute
the name for people we are very close to or to whom we want to show affection
ex: darling, dear, poppet (usually to a
little child), love, luvvie,
d. Using respect
this term the speaker use title before name to addressing someone
Mrs, Ms, Dr, Prof and the surname in more formal
e. Using group
term of using group, the speaker usually addressing someone more than one
everyone/everybody, children, boys, lads, girls, ladies, gentlemen.
f. Using very polite term
In this term the speaker use the title without the name usually
often in places such as shops or hotels where a service is being given.
ex: Madam, Sir
g. Using for job
this term the speaker don’t normally call people by the name of their job or
ex: doctor (medical), driver,
nurse, minister, officer, waiter.
h. Using for mockery
In this term the
speaker usually addresses the other by using mockery terms in this kind.
ex : fool, freak, damn, etc.
Based on three opinions, address term have relation with
sociological, anthropological, and social psychological. Because address term also
involved with authority, solidarity, politeness, status, education, job, age,
gender, race, ethnicity, region and ideology between the speaker and that
Politeness is the culture or habit apply in the
society. Politeness comprises linguistic and non-linguistic behavior through
which people indicate that they take others’ feelings of how they should be
treated into account. Politeness have a rule to be mutually upon together. So,
based on the statement (Ruhi, 2008) Politeness covers
behaviors through which people indicate that they take others’ feelings of how
they should be treated into account, and it comes into operation through
evaluative moments. While productive intention is important in politeness
behavior. Basically politeness show the concern toward individual. Being polite
therefore consists of attempting to save face for another.
Politeness can reach by social
closeness like teacher with student or teacher with fellow teacher. For example
1. Teacher with student
“Excuse me, Ms Clara, may I ask you about this
2. Teacher with fellow teacher
“Hey, Claire, got a minute”
From the example number 1 and 2 have different
social closeness can affected the concern toward individual. Example number 1
use by the student toward the teacher and the student use polite language.
Different from number 8 the fellow teacher use nonformal language. This one to
show self – image in pragmatic called “face”.
Brown and Levinson (in Miriam, 2006:84), suggested that it was useful to
distinguish two types of politeness. Their technique strategies called avoid
offence with two different types negative politeness by showing deference and
positive politeness by highlighting friendliness. They also say a strategy
polite or impolite depends what kind of attention a speaker pays to their own
and their addresse’s face wants.
person’s negative face is the need to independent, to have freedom of action,
and not be imposed by others. The word ‘negative’ here doesn’t mean ‘bad’, it’s
just the opposite pole from ‘positive’ face is the need to be accepted, even
liked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know that
his or her wants are shared by others. In simple terms, negative face is the
need to be independent and positive face is the need to be connected (Yule,
1996 : 61 – 62) from Yule statement is the requisite for someone to be
independent, have freedom act and can’t be lowered by another individual. So
negative it’s not something bad just opposite from the positive. Positive face
is the requisite for someone to be accepted, liked and known by another
individual, can be treated equally by the group.
based the three opinions, politeness and face are the basic wants in any social
interaction, and so during any social interaction, cooperation and politeness
is needed among the participants to maintain each others’ faces.
To analyze this
research, the writer will use the other theory from researcher to support this
research. This theory also have relation with expressing addressing term
especially in speaking. According Hyme (1974) a speech situation can only be
understood if not only linguistic, but also other aspects are taken into
consideration, such as : the setting of the communication, and the information
about the participants. In order to reflect all these factors and to help
speaking act analyze to make more in-depth analysis, Hymes coined the following
acronym : SPEAKING model/paradigm.
a. S = Setting / Scene
setting refers to the time and place with natural
situation, the influence will be happen to the speaker to choosing addressing
term. People can choose formal language where the speech situation is taking
place, for example : a University lecture hall this is the setting the overall
mood and context is the conversation serious or funny ; what is the cultural
ambiance) – this is the scene
psychological setting. Or they choose talking in the office than in a
b. P = Participants
Participant is all the people who join the
conversation (speaker and audience) for example the audience can be
distinguished as addresses and other hearers (Hymes 54 & 56). Basically
social status can be influenced the language.
c. E = Ends (goals)
Ends is what are the goals but the actual outcome of
speaking act is different, for example Kevin wanted to confess his love to
Katy, but instead of saying “I love you”, he awkwardly murmured “It is good to
see you, and today the weather really nice”. As a result, his confession was
d. A = Act Sequence
Act sequence is what happens is the first thing,
second, etc. Also how exactly the events unfold. For example a FAQ section of a
website: short questions first, brief answers follow; a TV host interviewing a
university student-hero and the applause of the audience).
e. K = Key
Key is refer to tone, manner, spirit, feeling
message of the speaking act (Hymes 57). Basically whether the situation is
formal or not, whether the participants are happy or sad. For example : an
informal birthday party, a family reunion, or a group purely emphasing, respect
and praise the story with serious voice.
f. I = Instrumentalities
Instrumentalities is the linguistic and
non-linguistic tools used to make the speech act possible more refer to the
language, dialect, etc. For example telephone, telegraph, writing, etc.
g. N = Norms
Norms is the conventions used by the speakers to
arrive at their set communicative goals using code. For example eye contact ,
asking question, etc.
h. G = Genre
Genre is The kind of speech act or event for our
course the kind of story. Different discipline act develop terms for kinds of
speech acts, and speech communities sometimes have their own type. For example
: final research paper, poem form, a small talk before a class.
These are the popular components of speaking in the
conversation might not need activate all together. Some of the factors might be
helpful to describe the factor in speaking that influence the language
phenomenon like term of language.